Revolution or Reform?


Imagine this hypothetical landscape: You live in 2300. Humanity is still around and somehow through calculated global programs, colonizing mars or deadly wars has reduced its earth population from ten down to three billion already. And has fixed it there. The earth is tolerably warm but sustained.


Countries are provinces of the world federal government and they have different state rules to practice their local cultural differences.
Different races campaign politically to defend the continuation of their gene traits and complaining about the others reproducing more than regulated.
The word “freedom” has mixed meanings and is used with the word “from” not to be misunderstood.


There is no centralized money and even digital currency is just a hidden layer of the world economy that some expert may still look at.
People use public services more than their private properties, however that’s a cultural thing; Everyone is given a minimum of private ownership by birth, and several times during their life span. People can lose their private stuff accidentally or choose to donate it at will, however the world welfare system may restore it for them.

There is a notion of money, but that is negative (like debt) which is calculated by an individual’s cost of living such as their footprint as long as it is calculably affected by their personal choices.
Therefore there is no money. There is fine.


Growth of companies are limited through regulating their shareholder’s wealth. New-capitalism is practiced safely.
Work is constitutional right but voluntary and companies act more like temporary social games shaped by entrepreneurs and closed and cashed out once they serve their purpose. Land and land resources, infrastructure, utilities, transport and media belong to the public and can not be bought by companies or other legal entities by the world constitution.

Every citizen is granted an equivalent of some work/office space and work equipment after a certain age. They can use the equivalent of their office space for individual business or they can exchange it with an equivalent of that when they get a job or build a company.
Education is too a constitutional right and voluntary. People get educated to fit the available work opportunities. Public education is accessible globally and private education is the service that educational companies serve.


Terms above are regulated by the world federal government, which is a distributed post-digital consensus system on the Internet. Democracy is not a hard-coded system and is a complicated structure for collective decision making by humans (and partly even by pets and rightful animals). It senses and collects data from different levels of humans’ lives and aggregate it organically to sense what people want (implicit voting) and thus regulates the society democratically. It’s optimisation will be focused on human’s psychological level and it’s well being. Feeling good is a constitutional right. Citizens get notified about the important updates of their local or federal rules depending on importance and relevance to their lives, and can always overwrite their predicted vote or temporarily exit the decision-making networks voluntarily. Politicians, lawyers and developers aid the machine. General assemblies are held by politicians who are themselves through the machine. Newer versions of democracies are be deployed. All citizens of the world have constitutional right to access the overall simulations and predictions that the system provide based upon the latest rules. Cultural differences will be shaped by local rules decided by the local people at the time. Climate, genetic differences and culture will self-organise the world to a peaceful multicultural equilibrium.

Legal system:

Over-scaling is a unified crime. Occupying other’s territories, violence, killing of rightful beings, exceeding the individual footprint limit, are all forms of over-scaling and will be fined by custody or private property depending on the degree of crime. People scale for sport in the virtual world.


Plato, Darwin and Mandelbrot are more famous than Einstein. Few nerds know Obama. No body knows Kanye West. But there’s this terrible dancing monkey all over the fucking virtual world.

Other species:

People talk to pets through chips and devices. Eating animals (and humans!) is highly regulated and lab-grown meat (and a lot of other lab food) has taken off. People consume them according to their fashion, taste and lifestyle.

Animals or humans are not being slaughtered in the real world unless there is a legal warrant or a specific type of digital authorization signed for it. Of course people (and pets) still cheat when you don’t see them, but machines watch, warn and stop the cheaters who kill “rightful animals” illegally. There are debates around the definition of that term. Say there is a list including mammals and big land animals. There are debates and protests to include or exclude a certain species.

In Spain (or north Africa?) they still chase bulls in a safer and non-fatal form of bullfighting. And those who love fishing have to go to, let’s say china, because it’s still legal there.


There are still families, although people are free to live in different social settings and move on to new groups. This will be reinforced by cultural differences in each region and the cultural differences will be maintained.


People take things for granted. They are civilized and they behave but they can easily get depressed and die a fragile life if they get isolated. It’s called “laziside”.
People have become even lazier than us in a sense that they have outsourced their surviving “actions” to the technology and thus they have also outsourced many of their “sensations” because keeping them is not crucial. Shortly, many sensorimotor functions of the brain are practically outsourced to the machines and that’s worrisome due to the depression and numbness that it creates.


For the reason mentioned above, “nature gyms” are all around and somewhat mandatory to train people to practice their sensations in the absence of some practical technologies. Professional sports have become intellectual. People compete over their “nature gym” skills by using their physical, social and cognitive skills to show off that they are best. There are cognitive games in the “nature gyms” where people look into each other’s eyes to read feelings and stuff like that. Sex comes to sport with different forms of convertors.


Nature and civilization are mixed up technologically. Buildings breathe and cities are self-sustained. Rooms rotate and change size and adapt with the light conditions democratically by the wishes of people in them.

The list goes on.

A future landscape that is missing a lot of unimaginable technological advances or their cultural artefacts. Just one in a zillion possibilities. Just fantasize and expand it on your own vision.

Then, question:

Is it fun? Should we start talking about a scenery like this? If yes, should we discuss how we should act accordingly to move towards something like this? And not further away from it? Should we wait till machines do it for us?

Or should we – really painfully – go extinct?

For the Pi Day

This post may be a bit technical for general audience (as if anybody is reading this!). Although, if you do and happen to have any popular interest in Pi, the mathematical constant π=3.141592…, since it’s the day of Pi, consider to scan it through and get to the end point, if I manage to make it!

From 20 to 18 years ago I attempted to build an algebraic axiomatic system to reformulate geometry. The goal was to generalize the theorems of Euclidean geometry to a version independent from the number of its dimensions.

I didn’t know how big the world is and that my work must be redundant. So I put the effort and called it “geometry beyond dimensions”. Soon after renamed to “multidimensional Euclidean geometry” (word by word translation from Persian).

My ambitions were beyond speculating about the “flatlanders” and generalizing their problem: Oh, poor flatlanders don’t know about us three dimensional beings, so we too must learn about four dimensions and higher.

No, the point was that there is a lot more to linking geometry and algebra. Still an unacomplished mission.

Anyhow, learning two and three dimensional geometry was mandatory at school and I extended it from N=2, 3 to any number. It was a mechanical and labor intensive work using the principles of induction and a minimal set of “bridging” axioms on top of the existing literature, our school books.

Not only the concept was beyond my intuitive perception, the formulation could also get weird quickly, but it was possible after all to get familiar and use tricks to grasp the concepts and proceed.

To see how it looked like before it escalates, here is an example axiom (a bulding block for more complicated structures and proofs that came later in the book):

There exists exactly one N-dimensional space passing through any N+1 points not lying on the same straight N-1-dimensional space.

A bit weird, huh? But you could put N=1 to get the following axiom in planar geometry, more intuitive:

There exists exactly one line passing through any two distinct points.

Or N=2:

There exists exactly one plane passing through any three points not lying on the same line.

It took some 80 theorems till it covered a satisfactory area and I wrapped it up. And although I was quite obsesssed with its mechanical accuracy, I remember it still had few holes and gaps.

Now let’s get closer to the Pi:

One of the wheels I reinvented in that work was calculating the volume of n-ball, or a multidimensional hypersphere. Of course I didn’t just write an integral to solve it; I proved dozens of theorems to justify that my integral is legit and comes only from the few axioms that were introduced at the start of the book, and assumes no more.

The final result was mysterious in terms of its connection with the Gamma function and Pi. And this is where it can take us beyond a dimension-agnostic theory of geometry: discovering the nature of Pi!

Now, I refer to the pages 45 to 56 in my book (Sorry it’s all in Persian!) But I will make a simpler point here. Let’s try to formulate:

0. Consider the volume of a 0-sphere: How many dots are in a dot? 1 (or 1.R0)

1. And the volume of a 1-sphere with radius R: What is the length of a line segment with radius R: 2 R1

2. The volume of a 2-sphere: What is the surface of a circle with radius R: R2

3. How about the volume of a 3-sphere? 4/3π R3

4. And it turns out that the volume of a 4 dimensional sphere (all the points on a 4D space that are as far from one point in a 4D space) is: π2/2 R4

N. In general the volume of N-ball, an N-dimensional hypersphere with radius R turns out to be: πN/2 / Γ(N/2+1) RN

You can find the full proof in the book in Persian (pages 45 to 56), and perhaps somewhere on the net in English. Now, ignoring the trivial part of the formula (RN) we end up with a magical co-efficient as a function of N:

πN/2 / Γ(N/2+1)

Where Γ  is the Gamma function. Now the value of this function for its integer arguments is straight ahead. It ends up equal to the famous factorial function, multiplication of all integers from 1 to that number [minus one]:

Γ(n) = (n-1)! = 1*2*3*…*(n-1)
Γ(n+1) = n* Γ(n) (n) = 1*2*3*…*n

For non-integers though it will take on funny values to interpolate the factorial results between two integers. For example for the half values right in the middle of two integers, it ends up a rational number (a number that can be written in a form of an integer devided by another one) multiplied by an irrational number which is Γ(½) and happens to be the square root of π, that is not only irrational but transendental:

Γ(n+½) = (n+½)*(n-½)*…*Γ(½)

Now the strange part is that the argument of the Gamma function in our formula is N/2+1. It gets one unit higher for every second added dimension! And that for odd dimensions it will not be an integer or a rational and will include the term Γ(½)=√π.

On the other hand the gamma function in our formula is multiplied by another term of πN/2 which also introduces a √π for every added dimension. Thus, for even number of dimensions none of the terms πN/2 and Γ(N/2+1) introduce a √π and we end up with a rational number multiplied by πN/2 where N/2 is an integer. For odd numbers both of these terms introduce a √π that divides and vanishes. So, there will not be a √π in any of the integer dimensions, even or odd.

It is not a √π introduced to the formula for every added dimension, instead is it an extra π coming to multiply, for every even number of dimensions. Odd dimensions (extending from a point to a line, or from a circle to sphere) do not introduce a new π to the co-efficient, only a rational number. The even numbers (going from a line to a circle) bring in a π to the play! A strange asymmetry between the odd and even dimensions, I would say.

Ignoring the rational part of our magical co-efficient, for every second added dimension there will be just one π introduced and the co-efficient for dimensions from 0, 1, 2, 3, … will be as the following:

0 -> 1
1 -> 2
2 -> 2π
3 -> 4/3.π
4 -> 1/2.π2
5 -> 8/15.π2
6 -> 1/6.π3
7 -> 16/105.π3
8 -> 1/24.π4
9 -> 32/945.π4

Where does π come from? One intuitive way is that it comes from the comparison of the space a hypersphere takes to that of a hypercube. But one π for every second dimension. Why every second? Well, this happens in Euclidean geometry where distances are Euclidean and the ball is defined as a set of points equally far from a center, using a “two” norm distance metric. You take another distance measure and the math will change. But I would argue that Euclidean distance is the only legit metric at least when it comes to defining a ball, as it is the only metric that maintains the shape of the ball when we rotate the axes. So the key is that when you go beyond one dimension something called “shortcut” comes to existance. And there’s a straight shortcut that for some reason follows the Pithagorean theorem and that defines the perfect curvature. I couldn’t reveal how these are connected, but if I ever want to speculate about the nature of π, here would be my starting point.

p.s. I read a bit more on the topic. I opened that back door in my head and it was two decades of silence and spiders ran off quickly. My friend Sajad gave me a torch, albeit a map: Quite surprisingly the Pi day coincided this news on some weird statistical behavior of the Prime numbers. I realized that I was brought up in a typical middle class (and 3-dimensional!) family. Dimension-deprievation is the evolutionary intution of 0, 1, 2, 3 only. That is too few to realize that all dimensions do not have to be symmetric because they are all numbers. The number of dimensions, even or add, prime or divisible, affects how N-space behaves and just like number theory it doesn’t have to inherit it all from N-1-space. Do all numbers exhibit the same properties cause they are all numbers? so why should they when they count dimensions. I think this is actually what numbers are made for: counting dimensions. And the historic fact that we count 1, 2, 3 and we “…” the rest is not pure coincidence. Sounds poetic, but read it logically:

3 doesn’t get every property of 2, neither does a ball from a circle. To my previous wonder, a ball (3-sphere) did not inherit an additional π from a circle in the calculation of the volume, but 4-sphere did. Is it weird? No, 3-sphere introduces singularity too, two poles in the hairly ball theorem, that are the two ends of a segment (1-sphere), but 4-sphere doesn’t: A circle (2-Sphere) can go round on another full circle around a point and you get a 3-torus or a 4-Sphere that you can comb (no singularity) and they both happens to have π2 in the volume and surface formula. Now you try to rotate the circle, not like you just did on both dimensions of a full circle and around one point, but instead around a segment on its own disk space. And you get a ball (3-sphere) with two inevitable South and North poles (singularity) and this time it does not give you that extra π. So, 3-sphere is just a product of a circle and a line segment (thus singularity, thus no extra π). The product of two circles (3-torus or 4-sphere) gets that extra π and you can also comb it (no singularity)!
This is a short summary of the common stories that two formal proves tell. The same thing happens in both: The multiplication of a new π in the volume of n-sphere on every second dimension in my [redundant] proof (A), and the generalized hairy ball theorem for 2n-spaces (B).

Is there an established field on the intersection of algebraic topology and number theory?

Wear you later!

I was fantasizing and day-dreaming about exotic forms of life. This topic is very much not within my expertise, but it is fun to let your thoughts play with the idea of life somewhere else.

No, I am not going to talk about whether we are alone! There is a consensus that we are probably not. But I wanna ask who are the others. How do they look like? What do they do?

And this was not really a dream. It was rather a guided semi-concious train of thoughts with closed eyes on the way to a powernap. So it may sound trivial, or wrong, or stupid. Nevertheless I explored some fantasies and I share them with you.

Rethinking loud…

Ok, In our terrestial life on Earth we *consume* each other in different forms for our survival. We eat, we mate, we socialize…

living organisms enjoy other creatures as nutrition to obtain energy and mass they need. So we all somehow eat for movement and for growth. Eating may have universal rules. I think creatures eat things that are not so much like them. But that can be a coincidence on our Earth and canibalism could be more widespread gallactically. And creatures don’t eat things that are so different from them, afterall they need to process the matter and rebuild they bodies, or burn it to be able to move. So some universal laws agreed on the issue of food.

living organisms sometimes need to meet each other and do something funny in order to reproduce. Let’s be polite and without the use of the F-word remember how our fellows across the animal kingdom rape or hump or bang each other with or without consent in order to pass on their genes. And well as opposed to eating, mating (if done with another being) is probably done with something that is more alike to us, and not that different, right? Cause then a legitimate question would arise: what kind of baby would come out of that interspecious act of sex!

well it doesn’t have to be socializing in a bar or coexistance of ants and termites, but we sometimes need to meet each other and collaborate on overcoming the problem of survival in other creative ways.

Sure we may do other things with each other directly and indirectly and these acts have been evolved, thus formed slowly over generations and generations.

Now there are other fundamentally different actions of survival that we could do to each other cause they seem very logical to me but we don’t! Or I couldn’t find immediate examples since I don’t know biology.

And I’d like to believe these exotic acts of life are actually happening somewhere out there on another planet on other stars, albeit other galaxies, right now as you read this.

What else could we do to each other? Three guesses!

So among other ways of consuming another live being, one animal could possibly wear another animal to protect against hazards, such as some poisonous matter, a colony of contagious and alive microorganism or some deadly radiation. I am aware that in our vicinity crabs move into new shells but this is not quite the same thing as shells are dead. And we wearing fur doesn’t count either. I am talking about life forms that are alive both as non-wearable and wearable. Or at least in the latter form.

Next time you take a shower imagine that water was a life form. And that your interaction was not that boring and static, like now that you two (you and water) are linked simply by gravity. Or by drowning. Let’s say the drops or the shower head could escape from you, or you had to trick and manipulate it somehow to wash and clean your body. If this example is not clear, try wiping your ass with a soft and fluffy rabbit next time.

My inspiration here is a cool gif animation of an E.T. that put on a pair of eyes from his plate into his hands and started to see the world (I can’t find it now). And this is where there is no limit to imagination. And gamble with a risky bet that: Whatever you imagine exists somewhere out there!

So, imagine an animal that wears another compatible animal temporarily or lifetime, to sense the environment better. What if some animal takes onother poor creature like a pair of glasses to see or hear or touch better? Or to recieve electrical signals more effectively? This must be more painful than joyful if it doesn’t somehow endanger the survival of the pray. Then pray will not decide and volunteer to be worn and well it will suffer. Hunted against its will, just like food or even worse if it us an unpleasant lifetime imprisonment!

Or let’s hope that karma is not that bitch and in most of such colonies of life, creatures enjoy being “sensed through”.

Thanks for following till this point. Now wake up and get back to life. To this very form you are used to.

Wear you later!

Darvin IV

There are billions of galaxies out there, billions of stars in each of them. There are trillions or quadrillions of planets in our universe and some of them harvest life. What happens in the bottom of our own oceans surprises us, let alone far planets around other stars in other galaxies (and assume that’s the only recipe for life).

Other life forms are extremely far and unreal, as if they don’t exist. But they most likely do, and so many of them indeed. But how do they look like? I think although our universe is ruling them all similarly, the potential is so huge that anything we can imagine proably exists somewhere. And anything that our imaginary creatures can imagine, could as well.

What other life forms may look like has not really captured our imaginations. Alien Planet – Darwin IV is the best (realistic, still very earthly) animation I have come across. There are many documantaries out there but no fictional motion pictures that I know of. If you know of some pleases hint me. If you haven’t watched this, give it a try. Don’t think fiction but more science. Think reproduction, growth, survival, energy, memory, intelligence. Think life! It’s fun.

The long tail of terrestial life

If you are an organic molecule, a molecule of terrestial life, is it more likely for you to be a part of a big animal, or a microorganism?

Let’s say you break (or not), you will travel from body to body, from a plankton to a fish, then bacteria, a tree, to a pig, or to a human. You spend there short or long. But where will you spend most of your lifetime? A big or a small host?

I would say both.

Could there be a simple answer to this, that applies to every other livable planet, at any stage of their evolution?

On ours, among uniqe species krills consist most of the biomass, human are second, arguably more than pigs and cows (still farmed by us). Though if you count thousands of species of ants as one, they win over all.

Still, seems all sizes are involved at this stage of life.

Geometrically I would say big should win at the end of the game. (Feel a jar with big marbles, then smaller, then sands, etc.)

Economy of scale aside.

New Interview Material for hiring Data Scientists

Hey Business Insider! any publicity is publicity. Plus you don’t need my publicity.

Though when I start my data analysis and warehousing company, I will use your article in the very first interview. If applicants don’t start laughing during the first 10 sec they are out. Unless they cry, or they get angry. Or they double-check the header thinking they are reading the Onion. Anyhow if they finally but late realized or were convinced that this is crap from every single aspect, they will be treated nicely but no job. And if… If they defended the article I would make sure there is a global black list to ban them lifetime from all activities related to data.

How do they allow themselves to publish this when they know “search results varies based on the searcher’s history, the time and place of search”.
Cause “they do say at least a little bit about how countries are perceived”?

Absolutely not.


They haven’t even checked with a friend next door to see s/he would get completely different results. In Norway I and my colleague asked Google the exact formulation:

How much * does cost in New Zeland

Autocomplete gave me: to live, build a house, abortion and to study. My colleague got food, petrol, university, gas, minecraft for NZ. The author got “vasectomy” possibly not even due to his country of search but relevant to his own search history. Then he labels every single country in the world by a totally random buzzword and gets an article in the Business Insider? Bravo!

Asking an uninteresting question, forming an irrelevant hypothesis, doing an absolutely wrong methodology on someone else’s data, representing it with a naive medium of visualization, and then lying in the title.

I had not seen something nearly careless at this level.

I try to summarize: First it gives an impression that these are top searches performed by the people in any country. That comes from the misleading title that actually changed a couple of times and finally got worse. If you struggle to make sense of this and you think it is about other countries’ perception about that country, you are still wrong. Finally you start to doubt the author and think it’s at least about how Americans perceive the world since he lives in the US. Not even that. It’s the authors search recommendation, apparently influenced bye is very own search history .

It’s like publishing an article on your personal recommendation and suggesting it to others as if the recommendation services with their fancy algorithms couldn’t do it for them.

Business Insider doesn’t need to apologize to the world for the silly stereotyping. That’s widely common and you can forgive or pity it as an effort-saving short cut to conserve mental processing energy. This article is unique in terms of ignorance combined with uncalibrated self-confidence. This is too bad to ignore.

Cheryl’s birthday

This has been shared massively around the social media and is a fairly interesting primary school puzzle. Now I tweak it a bit and retry it on you: Bernard’s birthday is on the 1st of April and on his birthday Bernard and Albert are trying to figure out Cheryl’s birthday (Albert and Bernard must lie in all three sentences or a part each, but Cheryl doesn’t lie!). So when is Cheryl’s birthday?

p.s. This tweak could have been a bit more interesting. The problem here is that at last Albert doesn’t know what kind of Lie Bernard is making. So yes it seems both June 18 as well as May 15/16 could hold them liar. The dates can be updated for both versions to satisfy a unique answer. Can’t think of it more now. Any suggestion?